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Old And New Testament Books Of The Bible

The Bible is the most widely read and most translated book in the world, but it also remains one of the least understood books ever written. This is mainly due to the fact that the Bible has been deliberately changed in various ways throughout the centuries. In some cases, entire books have been removed from the Bible; on several other occasions, sections of chapters were censored or even excised from the original work.

The Bible is a collection of various books written and compiled by different authors over a period of centuries. The complete collection of Bible books (often referred to as the canon) contains 66 individual works that are divided into two groups: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Old And New Testament Books Of The Bible

The Bible is a collection of books written by different authors over thousands of years. The Bible is divided into two parts: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

The Old Testament contains 39 books, written over a period of around 1,400 years. The New Testament contains 27 books, written over a period of about 70 years.

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39 Old Testament Books

The Old Testament was written in Hebrew and Aramaic, with some portions in Greek. The New Testament was written in Koine Greek (common Greek), with some portions in Hebrew and Aramaic.

The Old Testament contains the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

The New Testament contains the rest of the books in the Bible: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John (the Gospels), Acts of the Apostles, Romans through Philemon (Epistles), Hebrews through Jude (Prophets), 1 & 2 Peter (Epistles), James through Jude (Apocrypha), and Revelation.

The Old Testament (also known as the Hebrew Bible) is the first part of the Bible and contains 39 books. The New Testament is the second part, which contains 27 books.

The Old Testament was written by Jews between approximately 1500 B.C. and 400 B.C., while the New Testament was written by Christians between around 40 A.D. and 90 A.D.

The Old Testament includes history, law, poetry, and prophecy—including stories about Adam and Eve, Noah’s Ark, Moses leading his people out of slavery in Egypt, and many more historical events that occurred during this time period. The New Testament includes letters written by Jesus’ disciples after his death on a cross (known as crucifixion). These letters were written to inform others about what had happened to Jesus so they could continue spreading his teachings throughout the world after he ascended into heaven following his death on a cross (known as resurrection).

The Old Testament is the first part of the Bible, including 39 books. It was written by many people over a long period of time. The first five books are called the Pentateuch and were written by Moses between 1440 and 1400 BCE. The remaining 36 books were written by other prophets and scribes over the next 500 years until about 400 BCE.

The New Testament includes 27 books. The first four books were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. They were eyewitnesses to Jesus’ ministry on earth. The last book was written by the Apostle Paul after he was converted to Christianity around 50 CE.

What Are The 46 Books Of The Old Testament

Old Testament

It is divided into five sections: the Law, the Prophets, the Writings or Psalms, the Gospels and Acts, and Epistles and Revelation.

The books of the Old Testament are arranged in order of their appearance in history. The first section of books is called Pentateuch or Torah. They are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

The second section consists of Books of History: Joshua, Ruth, Judges, 1st & 2nd Samuel (which tells about Saul and David), 1st & 2nd Kings (which tells about Solomon’s Temple), 1st & 2nd Chronicles (a sequel to Samuel and Kings). The third section consists of Books of Poetry: Job (probably written by Moses), Psalms (written by David), Proverbs (written by Solomon).

Genesis

  • Genesis is the first book of the King James Version (KJV) and the first book of the bible.
  • It narrates important beginnings in biblical history, such as: Creation, Adam and Eve, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Joseph sold into slavery.

Exodus

Exodus is the most important book for understanding the theme of redemption in the Old Testament. It tells the story of Israel’s slavery and deliverance, the revelation of God to Israel through Moses, and the resulting establishment of a new covenant relationship between God and his people. The laws that are revealed are referred to as the “book of the covenant” (Exodus 24:7).

The book opens with a description of how Israel was brought into bondage in Egypt, followed by an account of how Moses is called by Yaweh to be God’s agent in delivering Israel out of Egypt. The rest of Exodus recounts Israel’s exodus under Yaweh’s guidance through Moses, including their arrival at Mt. Sinai. The Ten Commandments are given here along with many other laws that establish a covenant relationship between Yaweh and his people: “Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession” (Exodus 19:5).

From this perspective, Exodus is less about escaping from oppression than it is about being set free for an appointment with God who calls his people to serve him as his kingdom on earth. The goal is not autonomy but obedience to Yaweh because it is only through obedience that true freedom can be realized: “You shall therefore keep every commandment I am giving you today so that you may live…and enter and possess the land which Yahweh your God is giving you” (Deuteronomy 8:1).

Leviticus

While you may be familiar with the first two books of the Torah and Old Testament, Leviticus is the third book of both. Its name comes from its focus on religious rituals and instructions for priests, who were members of the tribe of Levi. The Levites were descendants of Levi, a son of Jacob who was also known as Israel. Unlike other tribes in Israel, they did not have their own land and instead had priestly duties that involved assisting with sacrifices at the altar in Jerusalem.

According to Jewish tradition, Moses received his instructions for creating an altar directly from God during his time on Mount Sinai. This information was later written down in Leviticus as part of a greater work known as the Torah or Pentateuch (Greek meaning “five scrolls”). Together these five books form what many consider one continuous narrative about humanity’s relationship with God starting from creation through new beginnings at Mount Sinai under Moses’ leadership until his death and burial near Moab some 40 years later.

Numbers

The Book of Numbers is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah / Pentateuch.

Numbers was written by Moses after the Israelites had left Egypt, but before they entered Canaan (the promised land). The name of the book comes from the two censuses taken of the Israelites.

Numbers begins at Mount Sinai, where the Israelites have received their laws and covenant from God and God has taken up residence among them in the sanctuary. The task before them is to take possession of the Promised Land. The people are counted and preparations are made for resuming their march. The Israelites begin in a spirit of optimism; however, they “murmur” at hardships along the way, about which God repeatedly warns them through Moses; reaching Kadesh-Barnea, they “rebel” against God’s order to continue on into Canaan despite their fear that hostile nations will oppose them there; so God condemns them to death in the wilderness until a new generation can grow up that will carry out his plan.

The book ends with instructions on how to prepare for when they enter Canaan.

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Pentateuch, which is the first section of the Hebrew Bible. The English title, translated from Greek and Latin, means “second law.” It presents itself as a farewell address delivered by Moses to Israel on the eve of their entry into the Promised Land (in Deut 1:1-5; 29:1; 31:1-5).

At the outset, Moses narrates his experience with Pharaoh in Egypt and reviews Israel’s rebelliousness in the wilderness under his leadership. The second part of Deuteronomy consists mainly of exhortations and instructions addressed to Israel on various matters. These include restrictions on use of sorcery and magic (Deut 18:9-14), commandment to destroy all members of Canaanite nations (Deut 20:16-18) along with cities and livestock, Israel’s future destiny in Canaan (Deut 28:1-68), commandments for keeping Sabbath, feasts, circumcision (Deut 16) along with laws concerning release from bondage or debt every seven years and tithe or tenth part payment to Levites (13). The final chapter includes laws concerning firstborn males whether people or animals dedicated to God service and commanded not to take a census by counting heads but instead paying ransom for each person at half shekel price each.

Joshua

  • Joshua, son of Nun
  • Son of Nun who was Moses’ assistant.
  • Became leader after the death of Moses.
  • Led Israelites into “Promised Land.”
  • Commanded sun and moon to stand still. (Joshua 10:12-13)
  • Fought battle of Jericho, which involved walking around city seven times before falling down. (Joshua 6:1-26)

Judges

After Joshua’s death, the elders, who were left to govern the people (2:7) in his stead, failed to prevent a backsliding that led to God’s abhorrence (2:20). As a result of this apostasy, God determined that He would send foreign oppressors against His people. These oppressions are set forth in detail in the Book of Judges.

Originally entitled “Shophetim,” or “Judges,” this book tells the story of Israel from the death of Joshua to the beginning of the monarchy. The period covered is one of the most fascinating in Israel’s history and is characterized by tremendous religious and political instability. The book includes numerous accounts regarding leaders who were raised up during times when many groups were vying for control. At times God was actively involved during these periods; at other times He was not directly involved but did allow certain events to occur which He used for His ultimate plan and will for His people.

The Book of Judges describes a time when there was no king or central rule among Israel; instead each man did what he thought was right (21:25). It depicts an era characterized by idolatry, immorality and bloodshed—a general moral decline brought about by disobedience. Despite all this, however, it does not fail to present an account of those who honored God and acted as instruments through which He worked out his purpose with respect to Israel.

Ruth

Ruth, like Esther, is a story that takes place during the Jewish exile in Persia. It is a love story of more than one kind: young love (between Ruth and her husband), maternal love (that of Naomi for her daughters-in-law), and romantic love (between Ruth and an older man named Boaz). The book tells the story of one woman’s loyalty to another: Ruth leaves everything she knows to follow Naomi when tragedy strikes, including her faith. She becomes a member of God’s chosen people and an ancestor of King David.

1 Samuel

1 Samuel, like the other historical books of the Old Testament, was originally part of one continuous book. 1 Samuel corresponds to 1 Kings and 2 Samuel is similar to 2 Kings. The book of 1 Samuel tells about the transition from the period of Judges (which ended with the death of Samson) to the period of kings. It includes some important material from earlier periods as well. The author is unknown but is believed to have been a prophet who lived in Jerusalem during the reigns of kings David and Solomon.

2 Samuel

2 Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible. It is part of the Books of Samuel, which were originally separated into two books. 2 Samuel begins where 1 Samuel leaves off and tells the story of David from his reign as king to his death. 2 Samuel continues to speak about the importance of God’s covenant with David and how this covenant is passed on to future generations.

1 Kings

1 Kings is the eleventh book of the Hebrew Bible, written by Jeremiah the prophet. 1 Kings tells the story of the reign of King Solomon and his son Rehoboam. It is part of the Deuteronomistic history—a biblical history comprising of a series of books that includes Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.

2 Kings

2 Kings is a biblical book that describes the history of ancient Israel. It’s part of the Deuteronomistic history, which also includes Joshua and Judges. The narrative continues from 1 Kings and concludes with 2 Chronicles 36:23.

The primary purpose of the narrative is to explain how Babylonian captivity happened, but in order to do this, it goes back further and explains what happened before. The narrative begins with Elijah’s ascension into heaven, and then traces multiple kings as they rule Israel until captivity begins. There are also several anachronisms in this book as well as some shoddy historiography. Because it’s based on such a small number of sources, there are many parallel episodes throughout the book.

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles is the ninth book of the Old Testament. 1 Chronicles is a genealogy of the kings of Israel, beginning with Adam and proceeding through Saul and David.

2 Chronicles

2 Chronicles is the twelfth book of the Bible, and was written by Ezra and Nehemiah. It’s an abridged history of Israel from Solomon’s death to the return from exile in Babylon. The book is primarily written in Hebrew, but parts are written in Aramaic.

Some notable events in 2 Chronicles are:

  • Solomon’s death and division of Israel into two kingdoms
  • Jehu’s destruction of Baal worship
  • Destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (the Babylonian king)
  • Return to Jerusalem by Jews after captivity

Ezra

Ezra was a scribe and priest. He belonged to the tribe of Levi, one of the Israelite tribes who led the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan (now known as Israel). Ezra led a group of exiles back to Jerusalem, which is why he is often referred to as “Ezra the scribe”. He was appointed by King Artaxerxes (the king of Persia) as religious leader over Jerusalem. Ezra was very interested in Moses’ law.

Nehemiah

Nehemiah (pronounced Nee-hi-MYAH) was a Hebrew cupbearer and governor of Judah, and a descendant of the tribe of Ephraim. He was born in Babylon, where he served as a cupbearer to the king. King Artaxerxes I sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem with a royal commission to rebuild its walls, which had been destroyed by the Assyrians and Babylonians during the Israelites’ exile from their homeland. The story of Nehemiah’s rebuilding of Jerusalem’s walls is recorded in chapters 1–13 of the Book of Nehemiah.

Later chapters record how Nehemiah revived Jewish religious observance after his return from exile, leading his people to become faithful followers of God. He instituted reform measures that promoted stronger family life, education for all children—even girls—and fair treatment for servants among other reforms to improve social conditions for all classes in Judea.

Nehemiah is considered to be a prophet, based on statements such as: “So shall you say unto them [the Jews], ‘The God of heaven has sent me unto you’; this is my name forever, and this memorial unto all generations.” (2:4)

Esther

Esther is an important book in the Bible because it shows how God works through the lives of ordinary people. It was written to show that we can all make a difference, no matter who we are or what our circumstances may be. Esther is a good example of how to live your life, and her story is one of courage against all odds.

Job

The Book of Job is set in Uz, a land far east of the Jordan River. The story begins with a description of Job’s piety and his blessings from God—a large family, wealth, and health. It goes on to explain that these blessings are part of an agreement between God and Satan. According to this agreement Satan can test Job’s faith in return for having the power to destroy the things he owns to see if he will still remain faithful.

Going against God’s wishes, Satan destroys all of Job’s property, his livestock and his children (all but one). In order to preserve him through this ordeal, God gives Job special protection as well as divine healing.

Job’s friends visit him in support after hearing about his loss. However they only offer useless consolation that doesn’t help at all. Instead they just criticize Job for doing wrong and suggest that if he repents then he will be rewarded again by God. This is even though they don’t actually know what sins he may or may not have committed.

Soon after this the narrator explains that God restores Job’s wealth twofold since he remained faithful through such difficult trials without cursing Him or blaming others for what happened like many other men would have done in such circumstances.

Psalms

The book of Psalms in the Bible is a collection of 150 poems that contain prayers, praise, and lamenting. It is divided into five sections (1-41; 42-72; 73-89; 90-106; 107-150) and is the longest book of the Bible.

This section contains:

  • Five proverbs from Psalms
  • Hymn from Psalms

Proverbs

Want to know the difference between a proverb and an aphorism? The two are often used interchangeably, but they’re not exactly the same thing. Proverbs are short, memorable sayings that give advice or express a general truth. The Book of Proverbs is a collection of proverbs written by Solomon and other wise men in ancient Israel. Aphorisms are pithy and memorable sayings that may be true in general (and often contain moral truths), but they’re not necessarily literally true or meant to be taken literally. For example, “All that glitters is not gold” would be considered an aphorism because it’s about the nature of life—but this saying doesn’t even make literal sense: some things that glitter actually are made out of gold!

Reading through the Book of Proverbs can feel like reading through a list of modern-day clichés: “A man’s pride bring him low, but a man of lowly spirit gains honor”; “Better is open rebuke than hidden love”; “A fool has no delight in understanding.” Many proverbs are still quoted today because their morals ring true for many people around the world for many generations.

Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes (Eccles)

The Book of Ecclesiastes is one of the most famous books of the Old Testament. The book describes the futility of a chasing worldly pleasures and desires. King Solomon’s legacy was mainly built on his wisdom, justice, and wealth. He had an insatiable desire for knowledge, which earned him a reputation as being the wisest man in the world at that time. He understood humanity’s weaknesses and how they were controlled by their own vanity while chasing after worldly desires.

Despite having everything he ever wanted, he still felt like there was something missing from his life. One day it struck him that all material things are temporary and that we can hold no power over our destiny or fulfill all our desires during our lifetime (Eccles 1:3-5). All of these things led to King Solomon writing Ecclesiastes about his observations about human nature during his reign over Israel many years ago. This shows us how much people have changed since then, but their struggles remain the same even today.

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