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39 books in the old testament

The 39 books of the old testament are: 1st book of Moses, 2nd book of Moses, 3rd book of Moses, 4th book of Moses, 5th book of Moses, 6th book of Moses, 7th book of Moses, 8th book of Moses, 9th book of Moses or Deuteronomy or 10 Commandments, 11st book or Leviticus or Laws, 12nd book or Numbers or Things numbered, 13rd book or Joshua Judges and Ruth or Historical books, 14th book or Samuel Kings and Chronicles or Poetical books and 15th book (the) Paralipomenon Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

39 books in the old testament

The Old Testament consists of 39 books. These books are divided into five sections: The Law, The Prophets, The Writings, The Psalms, and The Major Prophets.

The Law includes the first 5 books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. These books describe the history of Israel from God’s creation of Adam and Eve until Moses’ death. They also contain laws for worshiping God and moral codes for Israel to live by.

The Prophets are next in order: Joshua through Malachi (with the exception of Isaiah 56-66). These books tell stories about prophets who foretold future events or spoke messages from God to their people.

Why are there 39 books in the Old Testament

The Writings include Psalms through Song of Solomon (with the exception of Ezra-Nehemiah). These books record stories about kings and other leaders who lived during this time period as well as songs that were written during this era including Psalms which are songs that praise God’s works on earth while also asking him for help with daily life problems like sickness or family troubles; Proverbs which offer advice on how one should live life so they can be happy and successful; Job which tells

The 39 books of the Old Testament are divided into 5 sections:

  1. The Torah (or Pentateuch): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy
  2. The Historical Books: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings
  3. The Poetic/Wisdom Books: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon
  4. The Prophets: Isaiah (1-39), Jeremiah (1-45), Lamentations/Ezekiel/Daniel/Hosea/Joel/Amos/Obadiah/Jonah/Micah/Nahum/Habakkuk/Zephaniah/Haggai/Zechariah (1-8)/Malachi

The Old Testament of the Bible is divided into 39 books, with the first five being known as the Pentateuch.

The Pentateuch consists of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

The other 34 books in the Old Testament are organized into three groups: The Historical Books; The Wisdom Books; and The Prophetic Books.

The 39 books of the Bible are divided into two major parts: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

The Old Testament is made up of 39 books, including Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah.

The New Testament contains 27 books: Matthew through Revelation.

The Old Testament of the Bible is a collection of 39 books, which are divided into three sections: the Pentateuch (Genesis through Deuteronomy), the Historical Books (Joshua to Esther), and the Prophetic Books (Isaiah to Malachi).

The Old Testament has been quoted or referenced in every book of the New Testament.

Hebrew Bible

Hebrew language

Hebrew Bible, also called Hebrew ScripturesOld Testament, or Tanakh, collection of writings that was first compiled and preserved as the sacred books of the Jewish people. It also constitutes a large portion of the Christian Bible, known as the Old Testament. Except for a few passages in Aramaic, appearing mainly in the apocalyptic Book of Daniel, these scriptures were written originally in Hebrew during the period from 1200 to 100 BCE. The Hebrew Bible probably reached its current form about the 2nd century CE.

A brief treatment of the Hebrew Bible follows. For full treatment, see biblical literature.

General outline and major themes

Book of Job

In its general framework, the Hebrew Bible is the account of God’s dealing with the Jews as his chosen people, who collectively called themselves Israel. After an account of the world’s creation by God and the emergence of human civilization, the first six books narrate not only the history but the genealogy of the people of Israel to the conquest and settlement of the Promised Land under the terms of God’s covenant with Abraham, whom God promised to make the progenitor of a great nation. This covenant was subsequently renewed by Abraham’s son Isaac and grandson Jacob (whose byname Israel became the collective name of his descendants and whose sons, according to legend, fathered the 13 Israelite tribes) and centuries later by Moses (from the Israelite tribe of Levi). The following seven books continue their story in the Promised Land, describing the people’s constant apostasy and breaking of the covenant, the establishment and development of the monarchy in order to counter this, and the warnings by the prophets both of impending divine punishment and exile and of Israel’s need to repent. The last 11 books contain poetry, theology, and some additional history.

The Hebrew Bible is the literature of faith, not of scientific observation or historical demonstration. God’s existence as a speculative problem has no interest for the biblical writers. What is problematical for them is the human condition and destiny before God. The great biblical themes are about God, his revealed works of creation, provision, judgment, deliverance, his covenant, and his promises. The Hebrew Bible sees what happens to humankind in the light of God’s nature, righteousness, faithfulness, mercy, and love. The major themes about humankind relate to humanity’s rebellion, estrangement, and perversion; humankind’s redemption, forgiveness, and reconciliation are all viewed as the gracious works of God.

The Hebrew Bible’s profoundly monotheistic interpretation of human life and the universe as creations of God provides the basic structure of ideas that gave rise not only to Judaism and Christianity but also to Islam, which emerged from Jewish and Christian tradition and which views Abraham as a patriarch (see also Judaism: The ancient Middle Eastern setting).

Books of the Hebrew Bible

Torah scroll

The Hebrew canon contains 24 books, one for each of the scrolls on which these works were written in ancient times. The Hebrew Bible is organized into three main sections: the Torah, or “Teaching,” also called the Pentateuch or the “Five Books of Moses”; the Neviʾim, or Prophets; and the Ketuvim, or Writings. It is often referred to as the Tanakh, a word combining the first letter from the names of each of the three main divisions. Each of the three main groupings of texts is further subdivided. The Torah contains narratives combined with rules and instructions in Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The books of the Neviʾim are categorized among either the Former Prophets—which contain anecdotes about major Hebrew persons and include Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings—or the Latter Prophets—which exhort Israel to return to God and are named (because they are either attributed to or contain stories about them) for Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and (together in one book known as “The Book of the Twelve”) the 12 Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi). The last of the three divisions, the Ketuvim, contains poetry (devotional and erotic), theology, and drama in Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs (attributed to King Solomon), Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles.

The Hebrew Bible as adopted by Christianity features more than 24 books for several reasons. First, Christians divided some of the original Hebrew texts into two or more parts: Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles into two parts each; Ezra-Nehemiah into two separate books; and the Minor Prophets into 12 separate books. Further, the Bibles used in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and some Protestant churches were derived initially from the Septuagint, the Greek-language translation of the Hebrew Bible produced in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. This included some books deemed noncanonical by Orthodox Judaism and most Protestant churches (see also Apocrypha), slightly longer versions of Daniel and Esther, and one additional psalm. Moreover, the Ethiopian Tewahedo Orthodox Church, one of the Oriental Orthodox churches, also includes within its Old Testament two works considered by other Christian churches to be pseudepigraphical (both noncanonical and dubiously attributed to a biblical figure): the apocalyptic First Book of Enoch and the Book of Jubilees.

Cultural importance

In Judaism

After the kingdoms of Israel and Judah had fallen, in 722 BCE and 587/586 BCE, respectively, the Hebrew people outlived defeat, captivity, and the loss of their national independence, largely because they possessed writings that preserved their history and traditions. Many of them did not return to Palestine after their exile. Those who did return did so to rebuild a temple and reconstruct a society that was more nearly a religious community than an independent nation. The religion found expression in the books of the Hebrew Bible: books of the Law (Torah), history, prophecy, and poetry. The survival of the Jewish religion and its subsequent incalculable influence in the history of Western culture are difficult to explain without acknowledgment of the importance of the biblical writings.

When the Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 CE, the historical, priestly sacrificial worship centred in it came to an end and was never resumed. But the religion of the Jewish people had by then gone with them into many lands, where it retained its character and vitality because it still drew its nurture from biblical literature. The Hebrew Bible was with them in their synagogues, where it was read, prayed, and taught. It preserved their identity as a people, inspired their worship, arranged their calendar, and permeated their family lives; it shaped their ideals, sustained them in persecution, and touched their intellects. Whatever Jewish talent and genius have contributed to Western civilization is due in no small degree to the influence of the Hebrew Bible.

In Christianity

German Old Testament

Many Christians refer to the Hebrew Bible as the Old Testament, the prophecy foretelling the advent of Jesus Christ as God’s appointed Messiah. Christian tradition employs the Hebrew Scriptures to legitimize the gospel of Jesus in the New Testament as the natural extension of the Abrahamic covenant. The Hebrew Bible is thus as basic to Christianity as it is to Judaism. Without the Old Testament, the New Testament could not have been written and there could have been no man like Jesus; Christianity could not have been what it became. This has to do with cultural values, basic human values, as much as with religious beliefs. The name Old Testament was devised by a Christian, Melito of Sardis, about 170 CE to distinguish this part of the Bible from the writings that were eventually recognized as the New Testament, recounting the ministry and gospel of Jesus and presenting the history of the early Christian church


Jehoram, also called Joram, Hebrew Yehoram, or Yoram, one of two contemporary Old Testament kings.

Jehoram, the son of Ahab and Jezebel and king (c. 849–c. 842 BC) of Israel, maintained close relations with Judah. Together with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, Jehoram unsuccessfully attempted to subdue a revolt of Moab against Israel. As had his father, Jehoram later endeavoured to recover Ramoth-gilead from Hazael, king of Damascus. In this matter he was aided by his nephew Ahaziah, then king of Judah. Wounded during the fighting at Ramoth-gilead, Jehoram retired to Jezreel in Judah. During his convalescence a revolution took place and Jehu was anointed king at Ramoth-gilead. Jehu then put to death all the members of Ahab’s family including Jehoram, Jezebel, and Ahaziah

Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat and king (c. 849–c. 842 BC) of Judah, married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab, and was thus brother-in-law of the Jehoram of Israel. On ascending the throne Jehoram massacred his kinsmen. He had to face a successful revolt by Edom, a revolt by Libnak, and an invasion of Philistines and Arabs.

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