Skip to content
Home » The Septuagint With Apocrypha Greek And English Pdf

The Septuagint With Apocrypha Greek And English Pdf

The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English by Lancelot C. Steven Innes-Paperback, 364 pages, published June 19, 2016 by The Jesus Institute (first published in 1876).

The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English pdf by Rahlfs, Alfred, 1920–2006. Publication Date: 1987-01-01 Publisher Society of Biblical Literature Language English.

  The Septuagint (abbreviated as LXX and also known as the Greek Old Testament) is a translation of the Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Koine Greek. It is thought to have been written in the late 2nd century BCE (or early 1st century BCE), though it derives from earlier translations.

The Septuagint With Apocrypha Greek And English Pdf

This is the English translation of the Septuagint and Apocrypha, originally translated by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton in 1851 (reprinted in 1982 by Samuel Bagster & Sons). E.J. Brill in Leiden, Netherlands, and T&T Clark in Edinburgh published it. Full details of the text were given in vols. I–III of The Septuagint and Apocrypha in English (Oxford University Press), which can be ordered here:

The Septuagint (sep’-too-a-jint) [lat.,=seventy, fr. L sex seventy] is an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures (the Tanakh) into Greek. Israelites who lived in Egypt and Cairo made it between 280 and 250 bce, most likely with the help of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Out of a total of 803 or 753 verses in the modern canon, 773 come directly from the Septuagint (those found in Jewish Bibles), while 110 are additions from a variety of sources, including the Apocrypha, pseudepigrapha, old Latin versions, and original material.

The Septuagint (abbreviated LXX) is a translation of the Old Testament in Koine Greek. It was likely composed in Alexandria, Egypt, between 250 and 150 BCE by Egyptian Jewish scholars who translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek out of their native Egyptian language.

The Septuagint With Apocrypha Brenton’s Edition

The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (/ˈsɛptjuədʒɪnt/,[1] US also /sɛpˈtjuːədʒɪnt/;[2] from the Latin: septuaginta, lit. ’seventy’; often abbreviated 70; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible.[3] It includes several books beyond those contained in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible as canonically used in the tradition of mainstream Rabbinical Judaism. The additional books were composed in Greek, Hebrew, or Aramaic, but in most cases, only the Greek version has survived to the present. It is the oldest and most important complete translation of the Hebrew Bible made by the Jews. Some targums translating or paraphrasing the Bible into Aramaic were also made around the same time.

The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, known as the Torah or the Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE.[4] The remaining translations are presumably from the 2nd century BCE.[5][6][7]

The full title (Ancient Greek: Ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα, lit. ’The Translation of the Seventy’) derives from the story recorded in the Letter of Aristeas that the Hebrew Torah was translated into Greek at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–247 BCE) by 70 Jewish scholars or, according to later tradition, 72: six scholars from each of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who independently produced identical[dubious – discuss] translations.[citation needed] The miraculous character of the Aristeas legend might indicate the esteem in which the translation was held at the time; Greek translations of Hebrew scriptures were in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews.[8] Egyptian papyri from the period have led most scholars to view the probable dating of the translation of the Pentateuch to the third century BCE. Whatever share the Ptolemaic court may have had in the translation, it satisfied a need felt by the Jewish community, in whom the knowledge of Hebrew was waning.[9] However, the authenticity of Aristeas’ letter has been questioned; “[i]t was the English monk Humphrey Hody (1684) who was able to show convincingly that the letter was not by a contemporary of Philadelphus.”[10]

Greek scriptures were in wide use during the Second Temple period, because few people could read Hebrew at that time. The text of the Greek Old Testament is quoted more often than the original Hebrew Bible text in the Greek New Testament[11][12] (particularly the Pauline epistles)[13] by the Apostolic Fathers, and later by the Greek Church Fathers. Modern critical editions of the Greek Old Testament are based on the Codices Alexandrinus, Sinaiticus, and Vaticanus. These fourth- and fifth-century Greek Old Testament manuscripts have different lengths. The Codex Alexandrinus, for example, contains all four books of the Maccabees; the Codex Sinaiticus contains 1 and 4 Maccabees, and the Codex Vaticanus contains none of the four books.

“Septuagint” is derived from the Latin phrase versio septuaginta interpretum (“translation of the seventy interpreters”), which was derived from the Ancient Greek: Ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα, romanized: hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, lit. ’The Translation of the Seventy’.[14] It was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo (354–430 CE) that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures was called by the Latin term Septuaginta.[15] The Roman numeral LXX (seventy) is commonly used as an abbreviation, in addition to {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}} \mathfrak{G} [16] or G.

Jewish legend
Fragment of a Greek manuscript
Beginning of the Letter of Aristeas to Philocrates (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 11th century)
According to the legend, seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Greek Pharaoh of Egypt, to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew to Greek for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria.[17] This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates,[18] and is repeated by Philo of Alexandria, Josephus (in Antiquities of the Jews),[19] and by later sources (including Augustine of Hippo).[20] It is also found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud:

King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned. He entered each one’s room and said: “Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher”. God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically as all the others did.[21]

Philo of Alexandria writes that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. Caution is needed here regarding the accuracy of this statement by Philo of Alexandria, as it implies that the twelve tribes were still in existence during King Ptolemy’s reign, and that the Ten Lost Tribes of the twelve tribes had not been forcibly resettled by Assyria almost 500 years previously.[22] According to later rabbinic tradition (which considered the Greek translation as a distortion of sacred text and unsuitable for use in the synagogue), the Septuagint was given to Ptolemy two days before the annual Tenth of Tevet fast.[12][23]

The 3rd century BCE is supported for the Torah translation by a number of factors, including its Greek being representative of early Koine Greek, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, and early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.[24] After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is unclear which was translated when, or where; some may have been translated twice (into different versions), and then revised.[25] The quality and style of the translators varied considerably from book to book, from a literal translation to paraphrasing to an interpretative style.

The translation process of the Septuagint and from the Septuagint into other versions can be divided into several stages: the Greek text was produced within the social environment of Hellenistic Judaism, and completed by 132 BCE. With the spread of Early Christianity, this Septuagint in turn was rendered into Latin in a variety of versions and the latter, collectively known as the Vetus Latina, were also referred to as the Septuagint[26][27][28] initially in Alexandria but elsewhere as well.[14] The Septuagint also formed the basis for the Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian, and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament.[29]

The Septuagint is written in Koine Greek. Some sections contain Semiticisms, idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages such as Hebrew and Aramaic.[30] Other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs, have a stronger Greek influence.[17]

The Septuagint may also clarify pronunciation of pre-Masoretic Hebrew; many proper nouns are spelled with Greek vowels in the translation, but contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing. However, it is unlikely that all Biblical Hebrew sounds had precise Greek equivalents.[31]

Canonical differences
As the translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Hebrew Bible, also called the Tanakh, has three parts: the Torah “Law”, the Nevi’im “Prophets”, and the Ketuvim “Writings”. The Septuagint has four: law, history, poetry, and prophets. The books of the Apocrypha were inserted at appropriate locations.[7]

Extant copies of the Septuagint, which date from the 4th century CE, contain books and additions[32] not present in the Hebrew Bible as established in the Jewish canon[33] and are not uniform in their contents. According to some scholars, there is no evidence that the Septuagint included these additional books.[34][35][5] These copies of the Septuagint include books known as anagignoskomena in Greek and in English as deuterocanon (derived from the Greek words for “second canon”), books not included in the Jewish canon.[36][6]

These books are estimated to have been written between 200 BCE and 50 CE. Among them are the first two books of Maccabees; Tobit; Judith; the Wisdom of Solomon; Sirach; Baruch (including the Letter of Jeremiah), and additions to Esther and Daniel. The Septuagint version of some books, such as Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Masoretic Text, which were affirmed as canonical by the rabbis.[37] The Septuagint Book of Jeremiah is shorter than the Masoretic Text.[38] The Psalms of Solomon, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, the Letter of Jeremiah, the Book of Odes, the Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151 are included in some copies of the Septuagint.[39]

Several reasons have been given for the rejection of the Septuagint as scriptural by mainstream rabbinic Judaism since late antiquity. Differences between the Hebrew and the Greek were found.[12] The Hebrew source texts in some cases (particularly the Book of Daniel) used for the Septuagint differed from the Masoretic Text. The rabbis also wanted to distinguish their tradition from the emerging tradition of Christianity, which frequently used the Septuagint.[12] As a result of these teachings, other translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish rabbis have survived only as rare fragments.

The Septuagint became synonymous with the Greek Old Testament, a Christian canon incorporating the books of the Hebrew canon with additional texts. Although the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church include most of the books in the Septuagint in their canons, Protestant churches usually do not. After the Reformation, many Protestant Bibles began to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional texts (which came to be called the Apocrypha) as noncanonical.[40][41] The Apocrypha are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible.[42]

Deuterocanonical and apocryphal books in the Septuagint
Greek name[14][43][a] Transliteration English name
Προσευχὴ Μανασσῆ Proseuchē Manassē Prayer of Manasseh
Ἔσδρας Αʹ 1 Esdras 1 Esdras or 1 Ezra
Τωβίτ (called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources) Tōbit (or Tōbeit or Tōbith) Tobit
Ἰουδίθ Ioudith Judith
Ἐσθήρ Esthēr Esther (with additions)
Μακκαβαίων Αʹ 1 Makkabaiōn 1 Maccabees
Μακκαβαίων Βʹ 2 Makkabaiōn 2 Maccabees
Μακκαβαίων Γʹ 3 Makkabaiōn 3 Maccabees
Μακκαβαίων Δ’ Παράρτημα 4 Makkabaiōn Parartēma 4 Maccabees[44]
Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹ Psalmos 151 Psalm 151
Σοφία Σαλoμῶντος Sophia Salomōntos Wisdom or Wisdom of Solomon
Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Sophia Iēsou Seirach Sirach or Wisdom of Sirach
Βαρούχ Barouch Baruch
Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου Epistolē Ieremiou Epistle or Letter of Jeremiah
Δανιήλ Daniēl Daniel (with additions)
Ψαλμοί Σαλoμῶντος Psalmoi Salomōntos Psalms of Solomon[b]
Final form
All the books in Western Old Testament biblical canons are found in the Septuagint, although the order does not always coincide with the Western book order. The Septuagint order is evident in the earliest Christian Bibles, which were written during the fourth century.[17]

Some books which are set apart in the Masoretic Text are grouped together. The Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings are one four-part book entitled Βασιλειῶν (Of Reigns) in the Septuagint. The Books of Chronicles, known collectively as Παραλειπομένων (Of Things Left Out) supplement Reigns. The Septuagint organizes the minor prophets in its twelve-part Book of Twelve.[17]

Some ancient scriptures are found in the Septuagint, but not in the Hebrew Bible. The additional books are Tobit; Judith; the Wisdom of Solomon; Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach; Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah, which became chapter six of Baruch in the Vulgate; additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon); additions to Esther; 1 Maccabees; 2 Maccabees; 3 Maccabees; 4 Maccabees; 1 Esdras; Odes (including the Prayer of Manasseh); the Psalms of Solomon, and Psalm 151.

Fragments of deuterocanonical books in Hebrew are among the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Qumran. Sirach, whose text in Hebrew was already known from the Cairo Geniza, has been found in two scrolls (2QSir or 2Q18, 11QPs_a or 11Q5) in Hebrew. Another Hebrew scroll of Sirach has been found in Masada (MasSir).[46]: 597  Five fragments from the Book of Tobit have been found in Qumran: four written in Aramaic and one written in Hebrew (papyri 4Q, nos. 196-200).[46]: 636  Psalm 151 appears with a number of canonical and non-canonical psalms in the Dead Sea scroll 11QPs(a) (also known as 11Q5), a first-century-CE scroll discovered in 1956.[47] The scroll contains two short Hebrew psalms, which scholars agree were the basis for Psalm 151.[46]: 585–586  The canonical acceptance of these books varies by Christian tradition.

Theodotion’s translation
The Book of Daniel is preserved in the 12-chapter Masoretic Text and in two longer Greek versions, the original Septuagint version, c. 100 BCE, and the later Theodotion version from c. 2nd century CE. Both Greek texts contain three additions to Daniel: The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children; the story of Susannah and the Elders; and the story of Bel and the Dragon. Theodotion is much closer to the Masoretic Text and became so popular that it replaced the original Septuagint version in all but two manuscripts of the Septuagint itself.[48][49][50] The Greek additions were apparently never part of the Hebrew text.[51] Several Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel have been discovered, and the original form of the book is being reconstructed.[17]

Jewish use
See also: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon
It is unclear to what extent Alexandrian Jews accepted the authority of the Septuagint. Manuscripts of the Septuagint have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, and were thought to have been in use among various Jewish sects at the time.[52]

Several factors led most Jews to abandon the Septuagint around the second century CE. The earliest gentile Christians used the Septuagint out of necessity, since it was the only Greek version of the Bible and most (if not all) of these early non-Jewish Christians could not read Hebrew. The association of the Septuagint with a rival religion may have made it suspect in the eyes of the newer generation of Jews and Jewish scholars.[29] Jews instead used Hebrew or Aramaic Targum manuscripts later compiled by the Masoretes and authoritative Aramaic translations, such as those of Onkelos and Rabbi Yonathan ben Uziel.[53]

Perhaps most significant for the Septuagint, as distinct from other Greek versions, was that the Septuagint began to lose Jewish sanction after differences between it and contemporary Hebrew scriptures were discovered. Even Greek-speaking Jews tended to prefer other Jewish versions in Greek (such as the translation by Aquila), which seemed to be more concordant with contemporary Hebrew texts.[29]

Christian use
See also: Development of the Old Testament canon
The Early Christian church used the Greek texts,[12] since Greek was a lingua franca of the Roman Empire at the time and the language of the Greco-Roman Church while Aramaic was the language of Syriac Christianity. The relationship between the apostolic use of the Septuagint and the Hebrew texts is complicated. Although the Septuagint seems to have been a major source for the Apostles, it is not the only one. St. Jerome offered, for example, Matthew 2:15 and 2:23, John 19:37, John 7:38, and 1 Corinthians 2:9[54] as examples found in Hebrew texts but not in the Septuagint. Matthew 2:23 is not present in current Masoretic tradition either; according to Jerome, however, it was in Isaiah 11:1. The New Testament writers freely used the Greek translation when citing the Jewish scriptures (or quoting Jesus doing so), implying that Jesus, his apostles, and their followers considered it reliable.[13][30][12]

In the early Christian Church, the presumption that the Septuagint was translated by Jews before the time of Christ and that it lends itself more to a Christological interpretation than 2nd-century Hebrew texts in certain places was taken as evidence that “Jews” had changed the Hebrew text in a way that made it less Christological. Irenaeus writes about Isaiah 7:14 that the Septuagint clearly identifies a “virgin” (Greek παρθένος; bethulah in Hebrew) who would conceive.[55] The word almah in the Hebrew text was, according to Irenaeus, interpreted by Theodotion and Aquila (Jewish converts), as a “young woman” who would conceive. Again according to Irenaeus, the Ebionites used this to claim that Joseph was the biological father of Jesus. To him that was heresy facilitated by late anti-Christian alterations of the scripture in Hebrew, as evident by the older, pre-Christian Septuagint.[56]

Jerome broke with church tradition, translating most of the Old Testament of his Vulgate from Hebrew rather than Greek. His choice was sharply criticized by Augustine, his contemporary.[57] Although Jerome argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint on philological and theological grounds, because he was accused of heresy he also acknowledged the Septuagint texts.[58] Acceptance of Jerome’s version increased, and it displaced the Septuagint’s Old Latin translations.[29]

The Eastern Orthodox Church prefers to use the Septuagint as the basis for translating the Old Testament into other languages, and uses the untranslated Septuagint where Greek is the liturgical language. Critical translations of the Old Testament which use the Masoretic Text as their basis consult the Septuagint and other versions to reconstruct the meaning of the Hebrew text when it is unclear, corrupted, or ambiguous.[29] According to the New Jerusalem Bible foreword, “Only when this (the Masoretic Text) presents insuperable difficulties have emendations or other versions, such as the […] LXX, been used.”[59] The translator’s preface to the New International Version reads, “The translators also consulted the more important early versions (including) the Septuagint […] Readings from these versions were occasionally followed where the MT seemed doubtful”[60]

Textual history

Greek name[14][43][a] Transliteration English name
Γένεσις Genesis Genesis
Ἔξοδος Exodos Exodus
Λευϊτικόν Leuitikon Leviticus
Ἀριθμοί Arithmoi Numbers
Δευτερονόμιον Deuteronomion Deuteronomy
Ἰησοῦς Ναυῆ Iēsous Nauē Joshua
Κριταί Kritai Judges
Ῥούθ Routh Ruth
Βασιλειῶν Αʹ[c] 1 Basileiōn Kings I (I Samuel)
Βασιλειῶν Βʹ 2 Basileiōn Kings II (II Samuel)
Βασιλειῶν Γʹ 3 Basileiōn Kings III (I Kings)
Βασιλειῶν Δʹ 4 Basileiōn Kings IV (2 Kings)
Παραλειπομένων Αʹ 1 Paraleipomenōn[d] Chronicles I
Παραλειπομένων Βʹ 2 Paraleipomenōn Chronicles II
Ἔσδρας Αʹ Esdras A 1 Esdras
Ἔσδρας Βʹ Esdras B Ezra-Nehemiah
Τωβίτ[e] Tōbit[f] Tobit
Ἰουδίθ Ioudith Judith
Ἐσθήρ Esthēr Esther with additions
Μακκαβαίων Αʹ 1 Makkabaiōn Maccabees I
Μακκαβαίων Βʹ 2 Makkabaiōn Maccabees II
Μακκαβαίων Γʹ 3 Makkabaiōn Maccabees III
Ψαλμοί Psalmoi Psalms
Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹ Psalmos 151 Psalm 151
Προσευχὴ Μανασσῆ Proseuchē Manassē Prayer of Manasseh
Ἰώβ Iōb Job
Παροιμίαι Paroimiai Proverbs
Ἐκκλησιαστής Ekklēsiastēs Ecclesiastes
Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων Asma Asmatōn Song of Songs or Song of Solomon or Canticle of Canticles
Σοφία Σαλoμῶντος Sophia Salomōntos Wisdom or Wisdom of Solomon
Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Sophia Iēsou Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus
Ψαλμοί Σαλoμῶντος Psalmoi Salomōntos Psalms of Solomon[b]
Δώδεκα Dōdeka Minor Prophets
Ὡσηέ Αʹ I. Hōsēe Hosea
Ἀμώς Βʹ II. Āmōs Amos
Μιχαίας Γʹ III. Michaias Micah
Ἰωήλ Δʹ IV. Iōēl Joel
Ὀβδιού Εʹ[g] V. Obdiou Obadiah
Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ’ VI. Iōnas Jonah
Ναούμ Ζʹ VII. Naoum Nahum
Ἀμβακούμ Ηʹ VIII. Ambakoum Habakkuk
Σοφονίας Θʹ IX. Sophonias Zephaniah
Ἀγγαῖος Ιʹ X. Angaios Haggai
Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹ XI. Zacharias Zachariah
Μαλαχίας ΙΒʹ XII. Malachias Malachi
Ἠσαΐας Ēsaias Isaiah
Ἱερεμίας Hieremias Jeremiah
Βαρούχ Barouch Baruch
Θρῆνοι Thrēnoi Lamentations
Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου Epistolē Ieremiou Letter of Jeremiah
Ἰεζεκιήλ Iezekiēl Ezekiel
Δανιήλ Daniēl Daniel with additions
Μακκαβαίων Δ’ Παράρτημα 4 Makkabaiōn Parartēma 4 Maccabees[h]
Textual analysis
Diagram of relationships between manuscripts
The inter-relationship between significant ancient Old Testament manuscripts (some identified by their siglum). LXX denotes the original Septuagint.
Further information: Textual variants in the Hebrew Bible
Modern scholarship holds that the Septuagint was written from the 3rd through the 1st centuries BCE, but nearly all attempts at dating specific books (except for the Pentateuch, early- to mid-3rd century BCE) are tentative.[17] Later Jewish revisions and recensions of the Greek against the Hebrew are well-attested. The best-known are Aquila (128 CE), Symmachus, and Theodotion. These three, to varying degrees, are more-literal renderings of their contemporary Hebrew scriptures compared to the Old Greek (the original Septuagint). Modern scholars consider one (or more) of the three to be new Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible.

Although much of Origen’s Hexapla (a six-version critical edition of the Hebrew Bible) is lost, several compilations of fragments are available. Origen kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint), which included readings from all the Greek versions in a critical apparatus with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στίχος) belonged. Perhaps the Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen’s combined text was copied frequently (eventually without the editing marks) and the older uncombined text of the Septuagint was neglected. The combined text was the first major Christian recension of the Septuagint, often called the Hexaplar recension. Two other major recensions were identified in the century following Origen by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian (the Lucianic, or Antiochene, recension) and Hesychius (the Hesychian, or Alexandrian, recension).[17]

Main article: Septuagint manuscripts
The oldest manuscripts of the Septuagint include 2nd-century-BCE fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy (Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957) and 1st-century-BCE fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Twelve Minor Prophets (Alfred Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943). Relatively-complete manuscripts of the Septuagint postdate the Hexaplar recension, and include the fourth-century-CE Codex Vaticanus and the fifth-century Codex Alexandrinus. These are the oldest-surviving nearly-complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language; the oldest extant complete Hebrew texts date to about 600 years later, from the first half of the 10th century.[29] The 4th-century Codex Sinaiticus also partially survives, with many Old Testament texts.[29]: 73 : 198  The Jewish (and, later, Christian) revisions and recensions are largely responsible for the divergence of the codices.[17] The Codex Marchalianus is another notable manuscript.

Differences from the Vulgate and the Masoretic Text
The text of the Septuagint is generally close to that of the Masoretes and Vulgate. Genesis 4:1–6 is identical in the Septuagint, Vulgate and the Masoretic Text, and Genesis 4:8 to the end of the chapter is the same. There is only one noticeable difference in that chapter, at 4:7:[citation needed]

Genesis 4:7, LXX and English Translation (NETS) Genesis 4:7, Masoretic and English Translation from MT (Judaica Press) Genesis 4:7, Latin Vulgate and English Translation (Douay-Rheims)
οὐκ ἐὰν ὀρθῶς προσενέγκῃς, ὀρθῶς δὲ μὴ διέλῃς, ἥμαρτες; ἡσύχασον· πρὸς σὲ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ σὺ ἄρξεις αὐτοῦ.

Have you not sinned if you have brought it righteously, but not righteously divided it? Be calm, to you shall be his submission, and you shall rule over him. הֲלוֹא אִם תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל בּוֹ:‎

Is it not so that if you improve, it will be forgiven you? If you do not improve, however, at the entrance, sin is lying, and to you is its longing, but you can rule over it. nonne si bene egeris, recipies : sin autem male, statim in foribus peccatum aderit? sed sub te erit appetitus ejus, et tu dominaberis illius.

If thou do well, shalt thou not receive? but if ill, shall not sin forthwith be present at the door? but the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt have dominion over it.
The differences between the Septuagint and the MT fall into four categories:[61]

Different Hebrew sources for the MT and the Septuagint. Evidence of this can be found throughout the Old Testament. A subtle example may be found in Isaiah 36:11; the meaning remains the same, but the choice of words evidences a different text. The MT reads “…al tedaber yehudit be-‘ozne ha`am al ha-homa” [speak not the Judean language in the ears of (or—which can be heard by) the people on the wall]. The same verse in the Septuagint reads, according to the translation of Brenton: “and speak not to us in the Jewish tongue: and wherefore speakest thou in the ears of the men on the wall.” The MT reads “people” where the Septuagint reads “men”. This difference is very minor and does not affect the meaning of the verse.[citation needed] Scholars had used discrepancies such as this to claim that the Septuagint was a poor translation of the Hebrew original. This verse is found in Qumran (1QIsaa), however, where the Hebrew word “haanashim” (the men) is found in place of “haam” (the people). This discovery, and others like it, showed that even seemingly-minor differences of translation could be the result of variant Hebrew source texts.
Differences in interpretation stemming from the same Hebrew text. An example is Genesis 4:7, shown above.
Differences as a result of idiomatic translation issues: A Hebrew idiom may not be easily translated into Greek, and some difference is imparted. In Psalm 47:10, the MT reads: “The shields of the earth belong to God”; the Septuagint reads, “To God are the mighty ones of the earth.”
Transmission changes in Hebrew or Greek: Revision or recension changes and copying errors
Dead Sea Scrolls
The Biblical manuscripts found in Qumran, commonly known as the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS), have prompted comparisons of the texts associated with the Hebrew Bible (including the Septuagint).[62] Emanuel Tov, editor of the translated scrolls,[63] identifies five broad variants of DSS texts:[64][65]

Proto-Masoretic: A stable text and numerous, distinct agreements with the Masoretic Text. About 60 percent of the Biblical scrolls (including 1QIsa-b) are in this category.
Pre-Septuagint: Manuscripts which have distinctive affinities with the Greek Bible. About five percent of the Biblical scrolls, they include 4QDeut-q, 4QSam-a, 4QJer-b, and 4QJer-d. In addition to these manuscripts, several others share similarities with the Septuagint but do not fall into this category.
The Qumran “Living Bible”: Manuscripts which, according to Tov, were copied in accordance with the “Qumran practice”: distinctive, long orthography and morphology, frequent errors and corrections, and a free approach to the text. They make up about 20 percent of the Biblical corpus, including the Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa-a).
Pre-Samaritan: DSS manuscripts which reflect the textual form of the Samaritan Pentateuch, although the Samaritan Bible is later and contains information not found in these earlier scrolls, (such as God’s holy mountain at Shechem, rather than Jerusalem). These manuscripts, characterized by orthographic corrections and harmonizations with parallel texts elsewhere in the Pentateuch, are about five percent of the Biblical scrolls and include 4QpaleoExod-m.
Non-aligned: No consistent alignment with any of the other four text types. About 10 percent of the Biblical scrolls, they include 4QDeut-b, 4QDeut-c, 4QDeut-h, 4QIsa-c, and 4QDan-a.[64][66][i]
The textual sources present a variety of readings; Bastiaan Van Elderen compares three variations of Deuteronomy 32:43, the Song of Moses:[63][failed verification]

Deuteronomy 32.43, Masoretic Deuteronomy 32.43, Qumran Deuteronomy 32.43, Septuagint

1 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people

2 For he will avenge the blood of his servants

3 And will render vengeance to his adversaries

4 And will purge his land, his people.
1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him

2 And worship him, all you divine ones

3 For he will avenge the blood of his sons
4 And he will render vengeance to his adversaries
5 And he will recompense the ones hating him
6 And he purges the land of his people.
1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him
2 And let all the sons of God worship him
3 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people
4 And let all the angels of God be strong in him
5 Because he avenges the blood of his sons
6 And he will avenge and recompense justice to his enemies
7 And he will recompense the ones hating
8 And the Lord will cleanse the land of his people.
Print editions
The text of all print editions is derived from the recensions of Origen, Lucian, or Hesychius:

The editio princeps is the Complutensian Polyglot Bible. Based on now-lost manuscripts, it is one of the received texts used for the KJV (similar to Textus Receptus) and seems to convey quite early readings.[67]
The Brian Walton Polyglot [it] by Brian Walton is one of the few versions that includes a Septuagint not based on the Egyptian Alexandria-type text (such as Vaticanus, Alexandrinus and Sinaiticus), but follows the majority which agree (like the Complutensian Polyglot).
The Aldine edition (begun by Aldus Manutius) was published in Venice in 1518. The editor says that he collated ancient, unspecified manuscripts, and it has been reprinted several times.
The Roman or Sixtine Septuagint,[68] which uses Codex Vaticanus as the base text and later manuscripts for the lacunae in the uncial manuscript. It was published in 1587 under the direction of Antonio Carafa, with the help of Roman scholars Gugliemo Sirleto, Antonio Agelli and Petrus Morinus and by the authority of Sixtus V, to assist revisers preparing the Latin Vulgate edition ordered by the Council of Trent. It is the textus receptus of the Greek Old Testament and has been published in a number of editions, such as: those of Robert Holmes and James Parsons (Oxford, 1798–1827), the seven editions of Constantin von Tischendorf which appeared at Leipzig between 1850 and 1887 (the last two published after the death of the author and revised by Nestle), and the four editions of Henry Barclay Swete (Cambridge, 1887–95, 1901, 1909). A detailed description of this edition has been made by H. B. Swete in An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (1900), pp. 174–182.
Grabe’s edition was published in Oxford from 1707 to 1720 and reproduced, imperfectly, the Codex Alexandrinus of London. For partial editions, see Fulcran Vigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, 1643 and later.
Alfred Rahlfs’ edition of the Septuagint. Alfred Rahlfs, a Septuagint researcher at the University of Göttingen, began a manual edition of the Septuagint in 1917 or 1918. The completed Septuaginta, published in 1935, relies mainly on the Vaticanus, Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus and presents a critical framework with variants from these and several other sources.[69]
The Göttingen Septuagint (Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum), a critical version in multiple volumes published from 1931 to 2009, is not yet complete; the largest missing parts are the history books Joshua through Chronicles (except Ruth) and the Solomonic books Proverbs through Song of Songs. Its two critical frameworks present variant Septuagint readings and variants of other Greek versions.[70]
In 2006, a revision of Alfred Rahlfs’ Septuaginta was published by the German Bible Society. This revised edition includes over a thousand changes.[71] The text of this revised edition contains changes in the diacritics, and only two wording changes: in Isaiah 5:17 and 53:2, Is 5:17 ἀπειλημμένων became ἀπηλειμμένων, and Is 53:2 ἀνηγγείλαμεν became by conjecture ἀνέτειλε μένà.[72]
The Apostolic Bible Polyglot contains a Septuagint text derived primarily from the agreement of any two of the Complutensian Polyglot, the Sixtine, and the Aldine texts.[73]
Septuaginta: A Reader’s Edition, a 2018 reader’s edition of the Septuagint[74] using the text of the 2006 revised edition of Rahlf’s Septuaginta.[75]
One of the main challenges, faced by translators during their work, emanated from the need to implement appropriate Greek forms for various onomastic terms, used in the Hebrew Bible. Most onomastic terms (toponyms, anthroponyms) of the Hebrew Bible were rendered by corresponding Greek terms that were similar in form and sounding, with some notable exceptions.[76]

One of those exceptions was related to a specific group of onomastic terms for the region of Aram and ancient Arameans. Influenced by Greek onomastic terminology, translators decided to adopt Greek custom of using “Syrian” labels as designations for Arameans, their lands and language, thus abandoning endonymic (native) terms, that were used in the Hebrew Bible. In the Greek translation, the region of Aram was commonly labeled as “Syria”, while Arameans were labeled as “Syrians”. Such adoption and implementation of terms that were foreign (exonymic) had far-reaching influence on later terminology related to Arameans and their lands, since the same terminology was reflected in later Latin and other translations of the Septuagint, including the English translation.[77][78][79][80]

Reflecting on those problems, American orientalist Robert W. Rogers (d. 1930) noted in 1921: “it is most unfortunate that Syria and Syrians ever came into the English versions. It should always be Aram and the Aramaeans”.[81]

English translations
The first English translation (which excluded the apocrypha) was Charles Thomson’s in 1808, which was revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954 and published by the Falcon’s Wing Press.

The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English was translated by Lancelot Brenton in 1854. It is the traditional translation and most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and it has continually been in print. The translation, based on the Codex Vaticanus, contains the Greek and English texts in parallel columns. It has an average of four footnoted, transliterated words per page, abbreviated Alex and GK.

The Complete Apostles’ Bible (translated by Paul W. Esposito) was published in 2007. Using the Masoretic Text in the 23rd Psalm (and possibly elsewhere), it omits the apocrypha.

A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title (NETS), an academic translation based on the New Revised Standard version (in turn based on the Masoretic Text) was published by the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS) in October 2007.

The Apostolic Bible Polyglot, published in 2003, features a Greek-English interlinear Septuagint. It includes the Greek books of the Hebrew canon (without the apocrypha) and the Greek New Testament; the whole Bible is numerically coded to a new version of the Strong numbering system created to add words not present in the original numbering by Strong. The edition is set in monotonic orthography. The version includes a concordance and index.

The Orthodox Study Bible, published in early 2008, features a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs’ edition of the Greek text. Two additional major sources have been added: the 1851 Brenton translation and the New King James Version text in places where the translation matches the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the NKJV New Testament and extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.[82]

Nicholas King completed The Old Testament in four volumes and The Bible.[83]

Brenton’s Septuagint, Restored Names Version (SRNV) has been published in two volumes. The Hebrew-names restoration, based on the Westminster Leningrad Codex, focuses on the restoration of the Divine Name and has extensive Hebrew and Greek footnotes.

The Eastern Orthodox Bible would have featured an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation (which was primarily based on the Codex Vaticanus). With modern language and syntax, it would have had extensive introductory material and footnotes with significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants, before being cancelled.

The Holy Orthodox Bible by Peter A. Papoutsis and The Old Testament According to the Seventy by Michael Asser are based on the Greek Septuagint text published by the Apostoliki Diakonia of the Church of Greece.

In 2012, Lexham Press published the Lexham English Septuagint (LES), providing a literal, readable, and transparent English edition of the Septuagint for modern readers.[84] In 2019, Lexham Press published the Lexham English Septuagint, Second Edition (LES2), making more of an effort than the first to focus on the text as received rather than as produced. Because this approach shifts the point of reference from a diverse group to a single implied reader, the new LES exhibits more consistency than the first edition.[85] “The Lexham English Septuagint (LES), then, is the only contemporary English translation of the LXX that has been made directly from the Greek.”[86].

How Many Books Were In The Septuagint

The Septuagint Bible arose in the 3rd century B.C., when the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament, was translated into Greek. The name Septuagint derives from the Latin word septuaginta, which means 70. The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible is called Septuagint because 70 or 72 Jewish scholars reportedly took part in the translation process.

The scholars worked in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.), according to the Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates. They assembled to translate the Hebrew Old Testament into the Greek language because Koine Greek began to supplant Hebrew as the language most commonly spoken by the Jewish people during the Hellenistic Period.

Aristeas determined that 72 scholars took part in the Hebrew-to-Greek Bible translation by calculating six elders for each of the 12 tribes of Israel. Adding to the legend and symbolism of the number is the idea that the translation was created in 72 days, according to The Biblical Archaeologist article, “Why Study the Septuagint?” written by Melvin K. H. Peters in 1986.

Calvin J. Roetzel states in The World That Shaped the New Testament that the original Septuagint only contained the Pentateuch. The Pentateuch is the Greek version of the Torah, which consists of the first five books of the Bible. The text chronicles the Israelites from creation to the leave-taking of Moses. The specific books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. Later versions of the Septuagint included the other two sections of the Hebrew Bible, Prophets and Writings.

Roetzel discusses a latter-day embellishment to the Septuagint legend, which today probably qualifies as a miracle: Not only did 72 scholars working independently make separate translations in 70 days, but these translations agreed in every detail.

The Septuagint is also known as: LXX.

Example of Septuagint in a Sentence

The Septuagint contains Greek idioms that express events differently from the way they were expressed in the Hebrew Old Testament.

The term Septuagint is sometimes used to refer to any Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible.

Books of the Septuagint

  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • Kings (Samuel) I
  • Kings (Samuel) II
  • Kings III
  • Kings IV
  • Paralipomenon (Chronicles) I
  • Paralipomenon (Chronicles) II
  • Esdras I
  • Esdras I (Ezra)
  • Nehemiah
  • Psalms of David
  • Prayer of Manasseh
  • Proverbs
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Song of Solomon
  • Job
  • Wisdom of Solomon
  • Wisdom of the Son of Sirach
  • Esther
  • Judith
  • Tobit
  • Hosea
  • Amos
  • Micah
  • Joel
  • Obadiah
  • Jonah
  • Nahum
  • Habakkuk
  • Zephaniah
  • Haggai
  • Zechariah
  • Malachi
  • Isaiah
  • Jeremiah
  • Baruch
  • Lamentations of Jeremiah
  • Epistles of Jeremiah
  • Ezekial
  • Daniel
  • Song of the Three Children
  • Susanna
  • Bel and the Dragon
  • I Maccabees
  • II Maccabees
  • III Maccabees

How Many Versions Of The Septuagint Are There

The Septuagint is the Old Greek version of the Bible. It includes translations of all the books found in the Hebrew (Old Testament) canon, and as such it is the first known Bible translation. It also includes the so-called Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books, some translated from Hebrew originals and others originally composed in Greek.

It’s called the Septuagint after the Latin word for “seventy” (septuaginta). According to an old tradition (recounted in the Letter of Aristeas), the first five books of the Bible, known as the Pentateuch, were translated into Greek by about seventy elders sent to Egypt by the high priest Eleazar in Jerusalem at the request of King Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Alexandria, who wanted to add the Jewish Scriptures to his library. Although the story originally applied only to the Pentateuch, the tradition expanded to include the other books as well. In time, the entire Greek version came to be known as the Septuagint, or the version of “the Seventy,” and is abbreviated with the Roman numeral LXX (70).

This account was later used by Christians to defend the inspiration of the Septuagint against Jewish rabbis who disparaged its disagreements with the Hebrew text. Most scholars today agree that while the Pentateuch was translated in Egypt in the mid-third century B.C.E., Aristeas’s account is not authentic and postdates the translation by well over a century; it was probably written as propaganda to defend its authority. Yet there is some history in the tale: there was a large community of Jews living in Alexandria, and it is likely that the Pentateuch was translated for their benefit. The rest of the books followed gradually, probably over the course of several centuries.

One finds a range of translation styles in the books of the Septuagint, from very free to very literal. The identity of the various translators is not known, with one exception: according to its prologue, the book of Joshua ben Sira (known as Sirach or Ecclesiasticus) was translated by his grandson.

The Septuagint matters for many reasons. Its translators faced many of the same challenges and issues that today’s Bible translators do, so it forms an important resource for translation studies. It also helps us to understand how the Jews interpreted their Scriptures at an early stage. It translates a very early form of the Hebrew text and preserves important differences from surviving Hebrew manuscripts (notably the Masoretic Text). Furthermore, New Testament authors often quoted Old Testament passages from the Septuagint version, and their theological vocabulary—which via Latin became the vocabulary of Christian theology—often stems from the Septuagint. The Septuagint plus the New Testament became the Bible of Christianity and remains the version used in the Greek Orthodox Church. Its daughter versions have likewise been used over the centuries in the churches that used those languages. The Septuagint has fondly been called “Egypt’s greatest gift to Western civilization.”

Join the conversation

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *